[3] The second is the civil war, which plagued Rome from its foundation to its eventual demise. However, in 406 AD an unprecedented number of tribes took advantage of the freezing of the Rhine to cross en masse: Vandals, Suevi, Alans and Burgundians swept across the river and met little resistance in the Sack of Moguntiacum and the Sack of Treviri,[360] completely overrunning Gaul. A war against Bahram V in 420 AD over the persecution of the Christians in Persia led to a brief war that was soon concluded by treaty and in 441 AD a war with Yazdegerd II was again swiftly concluded by treaty after both parties battled threats elsewhere.[348]. [239] Together with Lucius Antonius, Mark Antony's wife Fulvia raised an army in Italy to fight for Antony's rights against Octavian but she was defeated by Octavian at the Battle of Perugia. [10], Although the Roman historian Livy (59 BC – 17 AD)[11] lists a series of seven kings of early Rome in his work Ab Urbe Condita, from its establishment through its earliest years, the first four kings (Romulus,[12] Numa,[13][14] Tullus Hostilius[14][15] and Ancus Marcius)[14][16] may be apocryphal. From its origin as a city-state on the peninsula of Italy in the 8th century BC, to its rise as an empire covering much of Southern Europe, Western Europe, Near East and North Afr Most of the Roman Republic's campaign history consists of land battles. Nevertheless, it was generally the fate of even the greatest of Rome's enemies, such as Pyrrhus and Hannibal, to win the battle but lose the war. However, in 406 AD an unprecedented number of tribes took advantage of the freezing of the Rhine to cross en masse: Vandals, Suevi, Alans and Burgundians swept across the river and met little resistance in the Sack of Moguntiacum and the Sack of Treviri,[358] completely overrunning Gaul. The Pannonian revolt in 6 AD[245] forced the Romans to cancel their plan to cement their conquest of Germania. By 50 BC, the entirety of Gaul lay in Roman hands. [229] Pompey's forces retreated south towards Brundisium,[230] and then fled to Greece. [191] Whatever the merits of his grievances against those in power of the state, his actions marked a watershed of the willingness of Roman troops to wage war against one another that was to pave the way for the wars of the triumvirate, the overthrowing of the Senate as the de facto head of the Roman state, and the eventual endemic usurpation of power by contenders for the emperor-ship in the later Empire. [268] Caligula's successor, Claudius, ordered the suspension of further attacks across the Rhine,[268] setting what was to become the permanent limit of the Empire's expansion in this direction. Tarquinius took the Latin town of Apiolae by storm and took great booty from there back to Rome. These accounts were written by … The two armies met again on the Via Postunia, in the First Battle of Bedriacum,[292] after which the Othonian troops fled back to their camp in Bedriacum,[293] and the next day surrendered to the Vitellian forces. Perseus initially had greater military success against the Romans than his father, winning the Battle of Callicinus against a Roman consular army. [267][268] Tribes in modern-day Scotland and Northern England repeatedly rebelled against Roman rule and two military bases were established in Britannia to protect against rebellion and incursions from the north, from which Roman troops built and manned Hadrian's Wall. [102], Continuing distrust led to the renewal of hostilities in the Second Punic War when Hannibal Barca, a member of the Barcid family of Carthaginian nobility, attacked Saguntum,[103][104] a city with diplomatic ties to Rome. The lone exception to this rule was Gallienus, emperor from 260 to 268 AD, who confronted a remarkable array of usurpers, most of whom he defeated in pitched battle. Emperor Caracalla, the son of Severus, marched on Parthia in 217 AD from Edessa to begin a war against them, but he was assassinated while on the march. [119] In 203 BC at the Battle of Bagbrades the invading Roman army under Scipio Africanus Major defeated the Carthaginian army of Hasdrubal Gisco and Syphax and Hannibal was recalled to Africa. [201] Following a consular term, he was then appointed to a five-year term as Proconsular Governor of Transalpine Gaul (current southern France) and Illyria (the coast of Dalmatia). The Gauls, under their chieftain Brennus, defeated the Roman army of around 15,000 troops[52] and proceeded to pursue the fleeing Romans back to Rome itself and partially sacked the town[55][56] before being either driven off[53][57][58] or bought off. In 144 BC, Viriathus formed a league against Rome with several Celtiberian tribes[133] and persuaded them to rise against Rome too, in the Second Numantine War. Septimius Severus and Pescennius Niger, both rebel generals declared to be emperors by the troops they commanded, clashed for the first time in 193 AD at the Battle of Cyzicus, in which Niger was defeated. It is unclear what was the outcome of the siege, or indeed the war. [129] By 179 BC, the Romans had mostly succeeded in pacifying the region and bringing it under their control. Pompey initially assured Rome and the senate that he could defeat Caesar in battle should he march on Rome. [106] At the famous Battle of Zama Scipio decisively defeated[118] – perhaps even "annihilated"[106] – Hannibal's army in North Africa, ending the Second Punic War. Further naval victories followed at the Battle of Tyndaris and the Battle of Cape Ecnomus. Unable to take the city by force of arms, Tarquin had his son, Sextus Tarquinius, infiltrate the city, gain the trust of its people and command of its army. [78] This time the Romans had devised methods to deal with the war elephants, including the use of javelins,[78] fire[81] and, one source claims, simply hitting the elephants heavily on the head. [82] Effectively dominating the Italian peninsula,[83] and with a proven international military reputation,[84] Rome now began to look to expand from the Italian mainland. In 260 AD at the Battle of Edessa the Sassanids defeated the Roman army[344] and captured the Roman Emperor Valerian. [257] Following a general uprising[258][259] in which the Britons sacked Colchester,[260] St Albans[261] and London,[261][262] the Romans suppressed the rebellion in the Battle of Watling Street[263][264] and went on to push as far north as central Scotland in the Battle of Mons Graupius. [201] To this end he stirred up popular nightmares of the first sack of Rome by the Gauls and the more recent spectre of the Cimbri and Teutones. [351][360][361] The Roman capital had by this time moved to the Italian city of Ravenna,[362] but some historians view 410 AD as an alternative date for the true fall of the Roman Empire. Rome was therefore forced to contend by around 340 BC against both Samnite incursions into their territory and, simultaneously, in a bitter war against their former allies. [38] Rome defeated the Lavinii and Tusculi in the Battle of Lake Regillus in 496 BC,[37][39][40] the Veientes in the Battle of the Cremera in 477 BC,[41][42] the Sabines in an unknown battle in 449 BC,[39] the Aequi in the Battle of Mons Algidus in 458 BC and the Battle of Corbione in 446 BC,[43] the Volsci[44] in the Battle of Corbione[45] in 446 BC the Aurunci in the Battle of Aricia,[46] the Capture of Fidenae in 435 BC[42][47] and the Siege of Veii in 396 BC,[42][45][47][48] and the Capture of Antium in 377 BC. [345], Certainly, the Sassanids had not been cowed by the previous battles with Rome and in 253 AD the Sassanids under Shapur I penetrated deeply into Roman territory several times, defeating a Roman force at the Battle of Barbalissos[345] and conquering and plundering Antiochia in 252 AD following the Siege of Antiochia. [155] Rome declared war on Macedonia again, starting the Third Macedonian War. [141] Rome gave Philip an ultimatum that he must submit Macedonia to being essentially a Roman province. Rome's borders in the east were indirectly governed through a system of client states for some time, leading to less direct campaigning than in the west in this period.[283]. [321], Northeastern Gaul and the Rhine frontier of the Roman empire in the time of Julian, The Alamanni on the other hand resumed their drive towards Italy almost immediately. [99], Despite being defeated on African soil, with their newfound naval abilities, the Romans roundly beat the Carthaginians in naval battle again – largely through the tactical innovations of the Roman fleet[87] – at the Battle of the Aegates Islands and leaving Carthage without a fleet or sufficient coin to raise one. From 314 AD onwards, Constantine defeated Licinius in the Battle of Cibalae, then the Battle of Mardia, and then again at the Battle of Adrianople, the Battle of the Hellespont and the Battle of Chrysopolis. Vespasian's and Vitellius' armies met in the Second Battle of Bedriacum,[294][297] after which the Vitellian troops were driven back into their camp outside Cremona, which was taken. [346], Europe in 476, from Muir's Historical Atlas (1911), The Western and Eastern Roman Empires by 476. The Samnites were a people just as martial[61] and as rich[62] as the Romans and had the objective of their own to secure more lands in the fertile[62] Italian plains on which Rome itself lay. The assembled warbands of the Alamanni frequently crossed the limes, attacking Germania Superior such that they were almost continually engaged in conflicts with the Roman Empire, whilst Goths attacked across the Danube in battles such as the Battle of Beroa[315] and Battle of Philippopolis in 250 AD[315] and the Battle of Abrittus in 251 AD,[315] and both Goths and Heruli ravaged the Aegean and, later, Greece, Thrace and Macedonia. [203] To this end he stirred up popular nightmares of the first sack of Rome by the Gauls and the more recent spectre of the Cimbri and Teutones. [239] In 42 BC Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fought the indecisive Battle of Philippi with Caesar's assassins Marcus Brutus and Cassius. The Romans then proved victorious at the Battle of Bovianum and the tide turned strongly against the Samnites from 314 BC onwards, leading them to sue for peace with progressively less generous terms. [142], Macedon began to encroach on territory claimed by several other Greek city states in 200 BC and these pleaded for help from their newfound ally Rome. Gordian III's fate is not certain, although he may have been murdered by his own successor, Philip the Arab, who ruled for only a few years before the army again raised a general, Decius, by their proclamation to emperor, who then defeated Philip in the Battle of Verona. In 275 BC, Pyrrhus again met the Roman army at the Battle of Beneventum. In 405 AD, the Ostrogoths invaded Italy itself, but were defeated. [92], Rome took to naval warfare "like a brick to water"[85] and the first few naval battles of the First Punic War such as the Battle of the Lipari Islands were catastrophic disasters for Rome, as might fairly be expected from a city that had no real prior experience of naval warfare. In 46 BC Caesar lost perhaps as much as a third of his army when his former commander Titus Labienus, who had defected to the Pompeians several years earlier, defeated him at the Battle of Ruspina. In 121 BC, Rome came into contact with the Celtic tribes of the Allobroges and the Arverni, both of which they defeated with apparent ease in the First Battle of Avignon near the Rhone river and the Second Battle of Avignon, the same year.[178]. Stilicho again attacked at the Battle of Verona[356] and again defeated Alaric,[357] forcing him to withdraw from Italy. These accounts were written by … The lone exception to this rule was Gallienus, emperor from 260 to 268 AD, who confronted a remarkable array of usurpers, most of whom he defeated in pitched battle. Labienus was killed in the battle and the Younger Pompey captured and executed. [10], Although the Roman historian Livy (59 BC – 17 AD)[11] lists a series of seven kings of early Rome in his work Ab urbe condita, from its establishment through its earliest years, the first four kings (Romulus,[12] Numa,[13][14] Tullus Hostilius[14][15] and Ancus Marcius)[14][16] may be apocryphal. Despite this grave danger, or perhaps because of it, the Roman army continued to be wracked by usurpation, in one of which Stilicho, Rome's foremost defender of the period, was put to death. Despite his military success, or probably because of it, fear spread of Caesar, now the primary figure of the Roman state, becoming an autocratic ruler and ending the Roman Republic. [287][288] Following an inconclusive battle near Antipolis,[291] Vitellius' troops attacked the city of Placentia in the Assault of Placentia, but were repulsed by the Othonian garrison. [269], On the continent, the extension of the Empire's borders beyond the Rhine hung in the balance for some time, with the emperor Caligula apparently poised to invade Germania in 39 AD, and Cnaeus Domitius Corbulo crossing the Rhine in 47 AD and marching into the territory of the Frisii and Chauci. Pompey's death did not see the end of the civil wars since initially Caesar's enemies were manyfold and Pompey's supporters continued to fight on after his death. Campaign History of The Roman Military Campaign History Of The Roman Military From its origin as a city-state in Italy in the 8th century BC, to its rise as an empire covering much of Southern Europe, Western Europe, Near East and North Africa and fall in the 5th century AD, the political history of Ancient Rome was typically closely entwined with its military history. [179] The opening action of the Cimbrian War, the Battle of Noreia in 112 BC, ended in defeat and near disaster for the Romans. A Roman force under Manius Acilius Glabrio defeated Antiochus at the Battle of Thermopylae[145] and forced him to evacuate Greece:[152] the Romans then pursued the Seleucids beyond Greece, beating them again in naval battles at the Battle of the Eurymedon and Battle of Myonessus, and finally in a decisive engagement of the Battle of Magnesia. However, after training more sailors and inventing a grappling engine known as a Corvus,[95] a Roman naval force under C. Duillius was able to roundly defeat a Carthaginian fleet at the Battle of Mylae. However, rebellions in Babylonia and the Jewish revolts in Judea made it difficult to maintain the captured province and the territories were abandoned. Those made desperately thirsty by their injuries drank water so augmented with blood that in their misery it seemed as though they were forced to drink the very blood which had poured from their wounds", This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 03:41. Philip, unsurprisingly, refused and, after initial internal reluctance for further hostilities,[142] Rome declared war against Philip in the Second Macedonian War. [87] The willingness of both Rome and Carthage to become embroiled on the soil of a third party may indicate a willingness to test each other's power without wishing to enter a full war of annihilation; certainly there was considerable disagreement within Rome about whether to prosecute the war at all. [49] After defeating the Veientes, the Romans had effectively completed the conquest of their immediate Etruscan neighbours,[50] as well as secured their position against the immediate threat posed by the tribespeople of the Apennine hills. [203] When the Helvetii and Tigurini[201] tribes began to migrate on a route that would take them near (not into)[204] the Roman province of Transalpine Gaul, Caesar had the barely sufficient excuse he needed for his Gallic Wars, fought between 58 BC and 49 BC. He took the wealthy town of Suessa Pometia, with the spoils of which he commenced the erection of the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus which his father had vowed. Traditionally, Romulus fortified the Palatine Hill after founding the city, and shortly thereafter Rome was "equal to any of the surrounding cities in her prowess in war". Tarquin also agreed to a peace with the Aequi, and renewed the treaty of peace between Rome and the Etruscans. The core of the campaign history of the Roman military is an aggregate of different accounts of the Roman military's land battles, from its initial defence against and subsequent conquest of the city's hilltop neighbours on the Italian peninsula, to the ultimate struggle of the Western Roman Empire for its existence against invading Huns, Vandals and Germanic tribes. The praetor Servius Sulpicius Galba and the proconsul Lucius Licinius Lucullus arrived in 151 BC and began the process of subduing the local population. [330] At around the same time, lesser-known tribes such as the Bavares, Baquates and Quinquegentanei[323] raided Africa.[330]. [181] The Cimbrian War was the first time since the Second Punic War that Italia and Rome itself had been seriously threatened, and caused great fear in Rome. The Lusitani revolted again in 146 BC under a new leader called Viriathus,[126] invading Turdetania (southern Iberia) in a guerrilla war. Stilicho offered to return the prisoners in exchange for the Visigoths returning to Illyricum but upon arriving at Verona, Alaric halted his retreat. [105] Hannibal then raised an army in Iberia and famously crossed the Italian Alps with elephants to invade Italy. [223] The death of Crassus removed some of the balance in the Triumvirate and, consequently, Caesar and Pompey began to move apart. Carthage never managed to recover after the Second Punic War[121] and the Third Punic War that followed was in reality a simple punitive mission to raze the city of Carthage to the ground. Her death led to partial reconciliation between Octavian and Antony who went on to crush the army of Sextus Pompeius, the last focus of opposition to the second triumvirate, in the naval Battle of Naulochus. [141] In the Battle of the Aous Roman forces under Titus Quinctius Flamininus defeated the Macedonians,[143] and in a second larger battle under the same opposing commanders in 197 BC, in the Battle of Cynoscephalae,[144] Flamininus again beat the Macedonians decisively. Over the years, Rome had expanded along the southern Iberian coast until in 211 BC it captured the city of Saguntum. [148] They also fought their former allies the Aetolian League in the Aetolian War,[149] against the Istrians in the Istrian War,[150] against the Illyrians in the Illyrian War,[151] and against Achaia in the Achaean War. [152][153], In 179 BC Philip died[154] and his talented and ambitious son, Perseus of Macedon, took his throne and showed a renewed interest in Greece. ] largely from Cilicia war on Macedonia again, starting the Third Macedonian war the second the. But completely defeated the Goths twice more in the Battle of Edessa the defeated... 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