More significantly, the Cheka operated outside the rule of law. Cheka Secret Police synonyms, Cheka Secret Police pronunciation, Cheka Secret Police translation, English dictionary definition of Cheka Secret Police. Cheka bezeichnet: Cheka-Kloster (tib. What does cheka mean? Its members were called Chekists well into the late 1980s. Title: “The Cheka” The Cheka [1] was the first Soviet state security organization. [4], From its start, the Cheka was an important military and security arm of the Bolshevik communist government. 3. While the Cheka’s methods drew on those used by the Okhrana, its size and willingness to use extra-legal killing both surpassed the activities of the Tsarist security police. Enrich your vocabulary with the English Definition dictionary Cheka (Russian) n (Russian history) the secret police set up in 1917 by the Bolshevik government: reorganized in the Soviet Union in Dec. 1922 as the GPU (C20: from Russian, acronym of Chrezvychainaya Komissiya Extraordinary Commission (to combat Counter … Juni 2020 um 20:41 Uhr bearbeitet. Cheka rate (Abbreviation) (Formed: 1917; dissolved/reorganized: 1922.) The Cheka (sometimes called VeCheka) was the much-feared Bolshevik security agency, formed to identify and eradicate counter-revolutionary activity. Another example of this public gesturing was Lenin’s famous order to the Penza Cheka to hang at least 100 men, “and make sure that the hanging takes place in full view of the people”. Search Results for CHEKA Meaning of CHEKA by its letters. Lenin subsequently altered Soviet regulations so that the Cheka was required to notify the Commissariat of an arrest or execution after after it had happened, rather than before. Welche Bedeutung hat der Name Cheka und welcher Herkunft ist er? From that point, the Cheka was never restricted by the rule of law or any obligation to due process or the rights of suspects. The Cheka is sometimes referred to as the Bolshevik ‘secret police’, though most Russians were well aware of its existence and activities. In Voronezh, they rolled their naked victims in nail-studded barrels. The Cheka (sometimes called VeCheka) was the much-feared Bolshevik security agency, formed to identify and eradicate counter-revolutionary activity. Collins English Dictionary. It hunted down speculators and hoarders, sometimes cordoning off entire neighbourhoods during its massive operations. According to Louise Bryant,  Dzerzhinsky adored Lenin and was “shy, aloof and deeply puritanical” – but he was also ruthless and dispassionate, hardened by years of abuse and persecution. Derived terms . became politically radicalized after his older brother was executed in 1887 for plotting to assassinate Czar Alexander III Each local Cheka had its own speciality. This was sometimes done publicly, in order to provide a deterrent to those who might oppose the regime. Publically gives the Cheka the right to deal with 'enemy agents, profiteers, marauders, hooligans, counter rev agitators and German spies' without going through the courtds.--> One day later 'saboteurs and other parasites is added' whom the Chekha should 'shoot on the spot' At the point of the Feb 21st 1918 document did would Cheka agents have an exact idea of who they were to target? The Cheka was formed in the wake of the October 1917 revolution, as a small agency to investigate and deal with threats to the new regime. For more information, visit our FAQ page or Terms of Use. This page was last changed on 19 January 2021, at 21:09. In reality, not all of its operations were secretive or concealed. His ruthlessness and fanaticism came to rival that of Lenin. In 1921 the troops of the Cheka numbered 200,000. All this was purposely done: to show Russians that the CHEKA was everywhere and dealt swiftly with those who betrayed or opposed the Bolshevik regime. The first of a succession of Soviet state security organizations, created in 1917. The Cheka is often described as the ‘Bolshevik secret police’. Dzerzhinksy had devoted his life to the Bolshevik cause. For the intelligence service, see Cheka Tcheka (Manuel Lopes Andrade; born in Ribeira da Barca, Santiago, Cape Verde, on July 20, 1973) is a Cape Verdean singer, songwriter and guitarist, who is well known for his work in transposing the traditional genre batuque to the electro-acoustic guitar. How do you use Cheka in a sentence? Early Buddhist texts and modern translations. Chekist; Translations This site is created and maintained by Alpha History. A favourite winter torture was to pour water on the naked victims until they became living ice statues. Browse more videos. Authors: Jennifer Llewellyn, Michael McConnell, Steve Thompson As opposition to the Bolshevik regime grew through 1918, so did the size and power of the Cheka. Initially very small with just a couple of hundred agents, the Cheka grew rapidly during the turmoil and growing opposition of 1918. He chose Bolsheviks he could trust for the difficult task of securing the revolution, men who were neither corruptible nor squeamish. It surrounded villages and short peasants resisting the forced requisitions of grain, often leaving the peasants who remained alive without enough to eat. Cheka was the first of a succession of Soviet state security organizations. Alexander Solzhenitsyn writes that some Cheka victims were force-fed large amounts of salted fish – but were prevented from drinking water. Word:* Part of speech: Definition:* Sample sentence: All definitions are approved by humans before publishing. A historian’s view: ( ˈtʃɛka) n. (Historical Terms) Russian history the secret police set up in 1917 by the Bolshevik government: reorganized in the Soviet Union in Dec 1922 as the GPU. The Cheka routinely used extra-legal violence and torture. Does it refer to individual members of the Cheka? Cheka. Some historians suggest that 200,000 or more are more realistic figures. The Cheka was the first Soviet state security organization. It was created on December 20, 1917, after a decree issued by Vladimir Lenin, and was subsequently led by aristocrat-turned-communist Felix Dzerzhinsky. It was to be the “sword and shield of the revolution”, defending the new regime against its enemies within. Freebase (0.00 / 0 votes) Rate this definition: Cheka. Citation information In Kiev, they affixed a cage with rats to the victim’s torso and heated it so that the enraged rats ate their way through the victim’s guts in an effort to escape. By the end of the Civil War the Cheka had become a powerful force. Dzerzhinsky was technically accountable to the Sovnarkom but only reported Cheka operations after they had taken place. It was created on 20 December 1917, after a decree issued by Vladimir Lenin. Report. By the autumn of 1918, these units numbered 33 battalions and more than 20,000 men. By late 1918, hundreds of Cheka committees had been created in various cities, at multiple levels including: oblast, guberniya, raion, … Copy to clipboard; Details / edit; omegawiki. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 16. 5. The name ‘Cheka’ was an abbreviated form of Chrezvychainaia Komissiia, the Russian for ‘Extraordinary Commission’. The Cheka was not accountable to judges or courts and there was no legal oversight of its operations. Michael Kort. History definition is - tale, story. Equinox 16:36, 8 November 2015 (UTC) Cheka agents operated on their own accord, carrying out arrests, detention and executions. URL: https://alphahistory.com/russianrevolution/cheka/ Russian (ˈtʃɛka) noun. This Russian Revolution site contains articles, sources and perspectives on events in Russia between 1891 and 1927. It is not willing to take care of some subtle themes and … What are synonyms for Cheka? The Cheka grows. Playing next. Date accessed: January 22, 2021 It contains 179,175 words in 288 pages and was updated on October 10th 2020. Link to this page: Add or improve a definition. Copyright: The content on this page may not be republished without our express permission. Dzerzhinksy spent more than a decade in prisons and labour camps before his release during the 1917 amnesty. 1. In its first two years, the Cheka executed 900 people suspected of trading on the black market. The Cheka became the embodiment of Dzerzhinsky’s ruthlessness. Copyright © HarperCollins Publishers. For example, President Vladimir Putin has been referred to in the Russian media as a "chekist" due to his career in the KGB. The first Communist-government secret-police organization. Dezember 1917 gegründete Staatssicherheit Sowjetrusslands, auf deren Tradition sich die politische Polizei der Ende 1922 gegründeten Sowjetunion berief. Atlas » Learn more about the world with our collection of regional and country maps. Written records of these methods were not kept so they are anecdotally based and possibly prone to exaggeration or falsification. Some of the more ghastly Cheka methods are described by historian Orlando Figes in his book A People’s Tragedy: The ingenuity of the Cheka’s torture methods was matched only by the Spanish Inquisition. The full name of the Cheka in 1918 was (in Russian) the "All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution, Profiteering and Corruption". The Cheka now outdid itself in cruelty by setting up forced labour camps entirely under its control. The decree ordered the formation of the “All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution and Sabotage”. translation and definition "cheka", Swahili-English Dictionary online. Among the targets of the Cheka were Russian nationalists who objected strongly… Cheka translation in English-Swedish dictionary. The decree forming the Cheka was broadly worded and contained few specific instructions about how it should operate. In doing so, driven by revolutionary fervour and unrestrained by law, by 1922 the Cheka had penetrated virtually every area of life in Soviet Russia. In Kharkov, they went in for the ‘glove trick’ – burning the victim’s hands in boiling water until the blistered skin could be peeled off: this left the victims with raw and bleeding hands and their torturers with ‘human gloves’. Between 1918 and 1920, the Cheka ballooned from a couple of hundred investigators to a bureaucratic and paramilitary behemoth containing more than 100,000 agents. Any promotional content will be deleted. Many thousands of dissidents, deserters, or other people were arrested, tortured or executed by Cheka groups. WeTscheKa ist die Abkürzung für die Außerordentliche Allrussische Kommission zur Bekämpfung von Konterrevolution, Spekulation und Sabotage, die nach der Oktoberrevolution am 20. 'chad kha dgon), Kloster in Tibet; Ntabo Ntambui Cheka, Milizenführer im Kongo; Cheka (Cajuata), Ortschaft im Municipio Cajuata, Bolivien; Dies ist eine Begriffsklärungsseite zur Unterscheidung mehrerer mit demselben Wort bezeichneter Begriffe. He also organised Cheka paramilitary units. On receiving the decree, Dzerzhinsky began recruiting Cheka agents. In 1918, CHEKA agents appeared in the audience of a Moscow circus and began shooting after one of its clowns, Bim Bom, made fun of the Bolsheviks and their leaders. Many thousands of dissidents, deserters, or other people were arrested, tortured or executed by Cheka groups. Cookies help us deliver our services. 2. These troops policed and ran the Gulag system; "requisitioned" food; tortured and executed political opponents; put down rebellions and riots by workers or peasants, and mutinies in the desertion-plagued Red Army.[5]. Another 600 bureaucrats were executed for “economic crimes”, mostly taking bribes. Its first leader was Felix Dzerzhinsky. By late 1918, hundreds of Cheka committees had been created in the cities. It was created on 20 December 1917, after a decree issued by Vladimir Lenin.Its first leader was Polish aristocrat-turned-communist Felix Dzerzhinsky.. History. It was active in assuring the food supply, in maintaining transport, in policing the Red Army and Navy, in monitoring the schools, and in ensuring that industries continued to function and deliver essential material to the state. In the Soviet Union, the state secret-police organization (1917–22), succeeded by the GPU. What is the meaning/definition of the acronym CHEKA? In Odessa, they chained their victims to planks and pushed them slowly into a furnace or a tank of boiling water. “Its original mandate was to root out the regime’s enemies: the counter-revolutionaries and saboteurs, enemy agents and speculators. The Cheka was headed by Feliz Dzerzhinsky, a Bolshevik of Polish extraction. The existence and activities of the CHEKA were widely known and many of its operations were conducted openly and publicly. He was a most unlikely radical – yet by the mid-1890s, Dzerzhinsky was involved in Marxist political groups in the Baltic. The Cheka is sometimes referred to as the Bolshevik ‘secret police’, though most Russians were well aware of its existence and activities. Born in Poland in 1877, Dzerzhinsky’s family were wealthy landed gentry with claims to a noble title. A small force of just a few hundred men in early 1918, within two years the Cheka was one of the largest Soviet agencies, employing around 200,000 people. “One feels he can neither understand nor forgive moral weaknesses in others, since he himself possesses that fanatical devotion which has made it possible for him to travel the hard, bitter road where his ideals lead”, Bryant wrote. It wis creatit on December 20, 1917, efter a decree issued bi Vladimir Lenin, an wis subsequently led bi Felix Dzerzhinsky, a Pols aristocrat turned communist. Cheka in British English. In 1918, the Cheka came into conflict with the Commissariat of Justice, which demanded to be notified before the arrest of suspects. In 1918 its name was changed, becoming "All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution, Profiteer… Hiervon abgeleitet wurde der Ausdruck Tschekisten für die … [3] After 1922, Cheka groups underwent many reorganizations, as did the NKVD. The astonishing understanding of individuals, avoiding long conversations also undermines these. [7], From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, "Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / Country Studies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Glossary", "A Stalin slip and Putin trick | Opinion", https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cheka&oldid=7295660, Articles containing Russian-language text, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. The first of a succession of Soviet state security organizations, created in 1917. Cheka definition, (in the Soviet Union) the state secret-police organization (1917–22), succeeded by the GPU. Dzerzhinsky’s incorruptible fanaticism and hard-heartedness earned him the epithets ‘Iron Felix’ and the ‘Iron Count’. Follow. (pronoun) Cheka. Lenin preferred to leave the Cheka’s operational details and methods to the man he chose to lead it: Felix Dzerzhinksy. Cheka definition in English dictionary, Cheka meaning, synonyms, see also 'Chekiang',ChE',cheap',cheat'. Official government figures suggest that just over 12,000 people were killed by Chekists in 1918-20. Dzerzhinsky neither denied nor retreated from the Cheka’s brutal role, declaring that “we stand for organised terror, terror being absolutely indispensable in the current revolutionary conditions”. 4. Definition funny of Cheka: In the Soviet Union, the state secret-police organization (1917–22), succeeded by the GPU. The Cheka was the Bolshevik security force or secret police. Publisher: Alpha History Official figures have of course disappeared, but a conservative estimate states that between 1917 and 1923 at least 200,000 ‘dissidents’ were shot by the Cheka in labour camps, while another 300,000 died in the suppression of working-class movements, strikes and mutinies. Date published: August 10, 2019 As the Bolsheviks expanded their definition of who was an enemy of the revolution, they also expanded the Cheka. It even suppressed strikes by factory workers, the presumed rulers of the ‘workers’ state’.” Chekists operated as investigators, arresting authorities, interrogators, prosecutors, judges, juries and executioners. Like most significant aspects of the new regime, the Cheka began with a decree from Vladimir Lenin and the Sovnarkom, dated December 19th 1917. The Cheka’s directive was to “persecute and break up all acts of counter-revolution and sabotage all over Russia, no matter what their origin”, to “bring before the Revolutionary Tribunal all counter-revolutionaries and saboteurs and to work out a plan for fighting them”, and to “make preliminary investigation only, enough to break up [counter-revolutionary acts]”. Plural Chekas can be found in Google Books. During its four year lifespan, the Cheka carried out arrests, interrogations, executions and campaigns entirely of its own accord. Cheka definition is - secret police (as in a Communist-dominated country) having virtually unrestrained power over life and death. Within two years it had more than 100,000 employees. In the lead up to the October Revolution, he became one of Lenin’s most trusted lieutenants. Make sure you have a side on you, do not be shy to show it. See more. According to historian Edward Peters, some of the torture methods employed by the CHEKA included beating, burning, branding and scalping. CHEKA agents also developed inventive but ghastly means of torture and psychological torment. The Cheka became a model for 20th century secret police agencies in totalitarian states, including the Gestapo (Nazi Germany), the Stasi (East Germany) and the KGB (Soviet Russia). By 1919, the Cheka employed more than 100,000 people and was one of the largest and best-funded agencies of the Soviet state. With this free rein, Cheka agents were able to persecute, detain, torture and summarily execute thousands of suspected spies, tsarists, counter-revolutionaries, kulaks, black marketeers and other ‘enemies of the state’. They used these to extract information or occasionally to create a public deterrent. By early March 1918, there were only 120 Chekists (Cheka agents). In Armavir, they crushed their skulls by tightening a leather strap with an iron bolt around their head. How to use history in a sentence. Given a virtual blank cheque, Dzerzhinsky ordered the recruitment of thousands of new agents. This infuriated Dzerzhinsky, who queried how it was possible for him to “crush counter-revolution with legal niceties”. A member of Cheka was called a "chekist" throughout the Soviet period, despite various official name changes. The Cheka was created on December 20, 1917, after a decree issued by Vladimir Lenin, and was subsequently led by aristocrat-turned-communist Felix Dzerzhinsky. Cheka M. Hier finden Sie Imformationen über die Bedeutung und den Ursprung des afrikanischen Baby-Namens Cheka. CHEKA acronym or abbreviation means: C: Meaning of C in CHEKA. What is the definition of Cheka? Suttas (sutras) from the Tipitaka (Tripitaka) in Pali, Chinese, Sanskrit, and Tibetan with the Buddha's teachings on … Cheka meaning and pronunciation. By late 1918, hundreds of Cheka committees had been created in the cities. cheka . Russian history. Russian Revolution memory quiz – events 1907-1916, Russian Revolution memory quiz – events 1917, Russian Revolution memory quiz – events 1918-1924, Russian Revolution memory quiz – revolutionaries, Russian Revolution memory quiz – tsarists, Russian Revolution memory quiz: concepts (I), Russian Revolution memory quiz: concepts (II), Russian Revolution memory quiz: events 1906 to 1913, Russian Revolution memory quiz: events 1914 to 1916, Russian Revolution memory quiz: events to 1905. Its members were called Chekists well into the late 1980s. He eventually joined Lenin’s Bolshevik faction in 1906. Cheka Definition. the secret police set up in 1917 by the Bolshevik government: reorganized in the Soviet Union in Dec 1922 as the GPU. The Cheka (a forerunner of the notorious KGB), or political police, was formed in December 1917 to protect communist power. 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